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How to replace/upgrade your 13c turbo.

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Old Apr 14th, 2012, 15:00   #1
barkster1971
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Default How to replace/upgrade your 13c turbo.

This will concern people whose car has the Mitsubishi 13c turbo. If your 900/700 has a T3 or T25 turbo you'll have slightly different options.
Most of the 940 turbo motors have a 13c turbo fitted as standard. As these cars can and do frequently over 150k miles the turbo may be getting a little tired which can be felt by lack of performance and or smoking from the exhaust as the oil seals get worn.
You may have decided to fit a manual boost controller (mbc) (and boost gauge) to up the boost. The maximum boost figure should be around 10PSI. You can run more but that can lead to more problems rather than benefits!
The 13c turbos can crack anywhere around the turbine housing (or hot-side) and the pin holding the actuator arm on can snap off leaving the remnants blocking the hole!
Therefore you may need to replace the turbo, or if you've grown to like the increased performance from fitting a mbc you may want to fit a larger turbo.
What are your options?
The Mistubishi 13c turbo is a small turbo in the range of TD04H turbochargers.
The larger the number the bigger the turbo and the more air it flows (at the same level of boost. A 13c flows 360 CFM and 15g 430 CFM.
The larger turbochargers are found mainly on Volvo 850's and V/C70'S.
As these are FWD Volvos with tranverse mounted engines the turbos are configured differently from the 13c turbo found on the redblock RWD Volvos!
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Old Apr 14th, 2012, 15:30   #2
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Default Basics.

The Mistsubishi turbos found on most turbo powered Volvos are oil and water cooled. They therefore have an oil feed and drain metal pipe and a water (coolant/anitfreeze) feed and drain going into the Central housing.
As well as an air feed coming from the air filter and a boosted air out on the compressor housing (coldside) and exhaust gases going into (from the exhaust manifold) and out of the turbine housing (hotside):-

Ignore the white exhaust paste I put on the downpipe to check for exhaust gas leakage!
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Old Apr 14th, 2012, 15:45   #3
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Default picture

Just to the left of the "oil in" you can see the nut and bolt of the V band clamp that holds the two halves of the turbo together. The oil and water feeds and drains go into the middle part of the turbo called the central housing rotatting assembly(CHRA). If you were to cut the CHRA in half you would see the four holes for the oil in/out and the coolant/water in out. If you also imagine the position of these holes on a clock face you would see the oil in at 12, oil out at 6, Coolant/water in at 3 and out at 9.
You can not see the oil drain pipe on the picture as it's underneath the turbo.
The outlet for boosted air can be consdired to be at 1.
The CHRA dimensions are the same on the 13c,15g,16T,18T and 19T so the pipework can be re-used i.e. there's no need to replace the oil and water pipes.
Familiarising yourself with the feeds, drains and relative positions of everything is useful when the time comes to take the turbo off and the replace it.
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Old Apr 14th, 2012, 16:04   #4
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Default Safety first

Once you have realised that your turbo needs replacing the next step is to have in your possession a replacement turbo. This is important! Make sure you have replacement turbo in your hands. The easiest option is to replace the 13c turbo with another 13c turbo.
Removing the turbo requires unbolting it from the exhaust manifold, the downpipe and the pipework going in and out of the turbo. The coolant feed can be have the jubilee clips removed after draining the coolant but the oil feed requires a 17mm spanner and access underneath to unbolt the two bolts securing the oil drain pipe.
You may want to get your turbo rebuilt and balanced or you may want to replace your turbo with a known good solid second hand one.
If you want to replace the 13c turbo with a slightly more fun one what are your options?
The second easiest option is to source a conical flanged 15g turbo from an early 94-95 Volvo 850 T5.
This requires some modification to fit!
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Old Apr 14th, 2012, 16:29   #5
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Default flange

The 13c hotside attaches to the downpipe via a concial flange. This is a dry fit without a gasket. The collar which is free to move on the downpipe has three bolt holes in it and the studs screw into three holes on the hotside through these holes and are collat tightens onto the union when the three nuts are wound down. Therefore if you wish to replace the 13c with a non-conical housing turbo you will need a new exhaust downpipe with a flat or angle flange.
A conical flanged 15g turbo then is a direct drop in replacement once it has been "reclocked".
Basically the coldside outlet (for boosted air) points straight down on the 850's and V/C70'S. However on the RWD Volvos it points upwards. The coldside compressor housing needs to be rotated to 1.05!
If you have a look at this link it will appear clearer!
http://www.turbobricks.com/forums/sh...ad.php?t=83929
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Old Apr 14th, 2012, 18:29   #6
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Default Turbobricks.

That is a very good indicator of what's involved but doesn't show exactly what's involved! Read on.
On the Turbobricks site the hotside turbo housing has been fitted before the CHRA and coldside is attached. This has it's advantages and disadvantages!
If you decide to purchase a 15g,16T.18T or 19T or get one from a scrapped car it will possibly arrive on your doorstep looking like this:-
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Old Apr 14th, 2012, 19:07   #7
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Default Feeds

You can see the oil drain pipe disappearing off the bottom of the picture and the long metal oil feed disappearing top right.
Whilst the pipes are connected clean the turbo. Washing up liquid and a toothbrush work fine. This prevents muck and grime getting into bits inside. Once it's clean remove the pipes.Remove the pin that prevents the actuator arm coming off gently as you don't want to break it and/or leave the middle part of it lodged in the hole.
The V band will then be the only thing holding the two halves together. Remove it and gently separate the housings.
If there is a lot of resistance to separate rotate the housings before applying pressure to pull them apart.
Make sure you use circlip pliers to remove the CHRA from the compressor housing.


You should be able to see the locating pin at 12 there which you need to remove so you can rotate the CHRA to it's correct location.


On the compressor housing is a small fin. If you have the hole for the oil drain pipe directly above this it will be correctly reclocked.
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Old Apr 14th, 2012, 19:26   #8
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Default Onwards

Once the circlip has been put back into it's groove to hold the CHRA in place the two halves of the turbo can be put back together. You can either put the hotside back on with the turbo off the car or bolt the hotside to the manifold and exhaust downpipe and then connect them.
I think putting it back together off the car is easier and you can then check the fins are turning freely on each side before tightening down the V band.
There isn't a great deal of clearance between the fins and the inside of the housings so it can be tricky getting it aligned correctly.
If you decide to put the hotside on the car first there is a great possibility than the fins will not turn as they will be catching. Take care that you do not put any strain on the fins when aligning the two halves. Take some time and check for free rotation with your finger. You'll be able to feel drag and hear it catching if it's not aligned correctly. Once it is tighten the V band up tight.
Make sure the hinge of the V band isn't in the way of the oil feed pipe or it will not go on.
The oil feed pipe enters the block hidden by a U bend of pipe work.
Obtain new copper washers and oil drain pipe rubber O ring and gasket. It's also a good time to clear the oil drain pipe of any gunked up oil deposits too.
Before you attach the oil feed pipe at the top pour some fresh oil into the cartridge so it doesn't start "dry".
Refill with coolant and check for leaks!
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